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Slovak Karst is the largest and most typical karst area in Central Europe and the most famous system plateau separated by deep valleys, the wealth of underground and surface karst phenomena and varied fauna. On the territory of the richest occurrence Pannonian flora of Slovakia.
Slovak Karst is the largest karst area in Central Europe. Power limestone layers without impermeable liners allow large rocks skrasovatenia process. From the morphological point of view is the striking unit that stands out from the overall landscape of the Western Carpathians and the image is formed by a system of plateau bordered by steep hillsides skláňajúcimi to the bottoms of adjacent basins, respectively. canyon valleys and gorges.
Slovak Karst was the deposition of sediments in the Mesozoic seas. The bottom part - the lower triad - are colorful green, reddish-purple shale and sandstone (SEiSS), which gradually pass into layers of limestone with a greater representation of (campaign). Middle Triassic is represented by a huge complex of limestone. These are primarily the lowest occurring so. gutensteinské dark limestones that pass upwards into strata vápencovodolomitických with representation from across the pale gray dolomite limestone and dolomite to pinkish limestone. Above them are kept light, so. Wetterstein limestone, which is gradually chemical and mechanical action of water known to have developed karst phenomena such as sinkholes, Karren, caves, abysses, underground streams, and gorges below.
The most beautiful morphological department of the Slovak Karst is undoubtedly Zádielska valley gorge. Millions of years Blatnický water stream cut into the limestone rocks, which still deepen its bed. The gradual demolition incurred ceilings of caves and tunnels formed gorge, whose walls were first modeled vertical erosion. A hint of the original closing of the valley can be seen at its upper end. Length own rocky gorge is about 2,200 m depth around 300 m, while the right side is about 50 m higher than the left. Width in some places the gorge is only 10 m. ' The lowest point of the gorge above the village rear is 270 m above sea level and its outlet to turn on Borik in the upper part is of 475 m. Total elevation is therefore 205 m. Gorge is oriented from north to south, the walls are perpendicular to places. In the upper two thirds of the sides extending in the shape of the letter "V". On both sides we see the rock combs passing perpendicularly to the direction of the gorge at the top of that create a heavily weathered numerous turrets. Among these "ribs" Hollow valley found at the top of overgrown forests, at the bottom going to suťovísk to create places in the valley scree cone.
Attention captivates visitors pyramidal rock modeled erosive action of water, which if raised from the bottom of the ravine, the shape was named Sugar Loaf Mountain. Blatnický stream flows alternately the right and left side of the road and creates small waterfalls and cascades. In the walls the gorge can be seen traces of the former action of flowing water, which by its pressure and rock fragments in the walls of various vybrúsila Basin and hemispherical depressions called. giant pressure cooker. In other places to see the many holes, small caves and crevices, where they find suitable conditions for birds nesting.
While the right side of the gorge has developed into wooded plains upper corner on the left side lies Zádielska plateau, which is mostly bare with groups of deciduous vegetation. Typical karren fields visitors can see the southern edge of the plateau, which stretches saprerušovane shrub and grassy area from the top of the mouth of the valley to Zádielska Turňa castle. Southern edge of the plateau Zádielska klesá Turnian steeply into the basin. Soil run-off that occurred after deforestation, formed on the slope Karren only slowly overgrowing shrub vegetation.
Simply skrasovatenia process can be characterized as follows: the gradual infiltration of rainwater into the system of fissures and cracks from spreading occurs, until the time of the underground tunnels, caves and cavities. The slow process of eroding the limestone and dolomite rock ends, where the karst rocks reached by impermeable bedrock. This lower level is called karst erosive base. At the point of contact between the two types of rock karst water often rises to the surface so. fountains.
Underground spaces over time clogs sailed material (soil, gravel) and on the walls occurs secondary precipitation of calcium carbonate. This creates a sinter decoration of caves, which at a later stage amazes visitors shapes the richness. Frequent is the formation of ravines and gorges, and the collapse of the ceilings of caves.
V Zádielska valley found several small caves, most of them deserve attention Skeletal, Royal Cave and bay. On the northern edge of the reservation, the cavers for many years trying to find the entrance to the underground spaces Zádielska expected plateau.
Slovak Karst has a length of about 32 km in the direction north-south and east-west direction about 72 km. The highest peak is Pipítka (1225 m) and the lowest point Hrhov, the altitude (around 190 m).
Valley in the Slovak Karst stands out for its extraordinary silence, an attractive country, rich forests, clear streams and rich and varied flora and fauna. I am probably best known Zádielská Valley.
Wild boar gap is located in the southeastern part Plešivská plains. It is formed of atmospheric corrosion leaky water. It is a fissure system priepasťovitých domes with a rich and varied sinter filling. The older sinter overflows grow scrub and clumps of skeletal calcite. At the bottom of some domes are shallow lakes with leknovými sintered bark and cave pearls. The gap reached 123 m depth. Finding the skeleton partly zasintrovanej wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a depth of 75 m. Opening the gap has been known for many years, discovered a deeper part of M. Erdos in 1964.
Ringtones pit corrosion-rútivá gap in the middle of a deep Plešivská plateau 101 m .. Leads to an underground dome with adjacent horizontal corridor 220 m long. Pagoda-like stalagmites are higher than 10 m, 26 m to the highest. Opening the gap has been known for many years. First descents can be traced back to the years of 1875 and the 1882nd The first scientific description dates from 1925.
A huge gap is the lower plateau of the hill above the village Jablonov Turnov. Corrosion-rútivý šachtovitý underground space reaches 100 m depth. The first descent into the abyss by Hungary cavers in 1959.
Snow pit located on the upper plateau Hill National Nature Reserve in Raven Rock, Western Zádielska from the top of the gorge. Rozsadlinovo-corrosion, gravitationally extended underground crack has a length of about 100 m depth of 25 m. At the end of smaller overflows permanent ice filling.
Kunio gap located at the southern edge of the Jasovská Plateau. Length reaches 813 mA 203 m depth. The gap appeared G. Stibrányi st. in 1947, penetrated to a depth of Kosice cavers in 1986. The gaps in the horizontal passage leads to the underground flow. The water penetrates through unfamiliar areas to Rocky Creek. The sinter filling straws catch, cascade dam, lake leknovité shapes.
When we are at least in general terms to characterize the fauna of the State Nature Reserve Zádielska gorge, we must emphasize that it can not break away from the whole context of the characteristics of the fauna of the karst area. Therefore, it is not only familiar with the fauna Zádielska gorge, but also the rare fauna of the Slovak Karst, where the gorge Zádielska doubt their special status.
In parallel with the development of conditions for the specific character of the vegetation cover of the Slovak Karst is developed diverse living conditions for the development and fauna, particularly the lower groups in their territory, this gives a special character that escape from the normal framework of the Carpathian forest zone and becomes mostly character zoocoenosis steppe and forest steppe zones. These zoocenoses xerothermophilous formations are often widely disparate intersect with mountain, subalpine elements that are similar to plants kept in a damp and colder valley habitats, as shown by the almost classically Zádielska gorge.
The territory of the Slovak Karst and Zádielska gorge known many endemic species, such as. of beetles Duvalius Bokor and Otiorhynchus roubali. Interesting are also the animals inhabiting subterranean cavities, caves and other karst geomorphological features. The most famous group of Isopoda troglobiontom Mesoniscus graniger It is a pale and blind, suggesting that it is perfectly adapted to life underground. The groundwater water crustaceans are typical species of blind Niphargus. The shellfish is known karst zebrina thermophilic (Zebrina Detroit) and is also notable for the occurrence of this species in Western Carpathians. Also known are a Mediterranean site bugs Trigonosoma rusticum and Rhinocort cuspidalus, one in Czechoslovakia. The individual, at least partially known groups of insects - butterflies, rovnokrídlovce, beetles - are characterized by a large proportion of southern xerothermic elements. It occurs as here. very rare prairie saga (Saga pedo) and praying mantis (Mánfa religiosa).
In higher vertebrates are another important group of highlighting the nature of the karst area xerothermic reptiles. The most interesting element is the occurrence of the South - krátkonôžky lean (Ablepharus kitaibelii), in our sole living species of the family scinkovitých whose presence in the beauty of it is rarer that these sites are extending their northern border. The other thermophilic species of reptiles should be mentioned wall lizard (Lacerta muralis), the green lizard (Lace viridis), Aesculapian snake (Elaphe longissima), which, in turn socialize in places with a mountain of cold second lizard (Lacerta vivipara). Similar mixing elements can be observed in other vertebrate groups, especially from the class of birds and mammals. Thus, for example. occurrence of thermophilic species of insectivores advice - belozúbky of Farrier big bat (Rhinolophus ferruequinum), South Farrier (Rhinolophus euryale) Lietavec migratory (Miniopterus schreibersii) of steppe species common suslik (Citellus citellus), as well as some other species on the one hand and Vrchovský shrew (Sorex alpinus), speckled Orešnica (Nucifraga caryocathactes) and lizard (Lacerta vivipara), on the other hand, show a significant turn of the bands on this rather small territorial unit. Of the rarer small mammals there is a large dormouse (Glis glis), Dormouse upper (Driomys niledula) pĺšik hazel (Muscardinus avellanarius). The larger species of game animals live here kuna forest (Martes martes), rock marten (Martes foina), common badger (Meles meles), wild cat (Felis silvesfris), lynx (Lynx lynx) and of course deer, deer and wild boar. Wolf was in the Slovak Karst have been exterminated and the intradukovaná Plešivská and Jasovská plain mouflons. A very rare protected species of mammals that still live in the Slovak Karst, one otter (Lutra lutra), which is already very occasionally occurs in the Slana River and Bodva.
At least the specificity of karst areas affected by the class of birds, it is under the influence of neighboring avicenóz orographic units, especially the Slovak Ore Mountains, and avicenóz cultural landscape and aquatic habitats, which intersect each other. Finally, there is the tiny area of territory because of locomotor ability of the animal groups. The overall character of the avifauna is so much not escape the framework of the nature of the Western Carpathians, at least on the surviving remnants of the original forest in the gorges, valleys and areas of warm residues Dubrava and beech. It should be noted that human intervention in natural forests, mainly deforestation hot Dubrava, there has been persistent quantitative and qualitative changes avicenóz. Those elements can be in terms of bird fauna set aside as a typical karst landscape of steppe and forest steppe zoocoenosis is very little.
The most important habitats of these species is thermophilous forest steppe ponto-Mediterranean species - cia ortolan (Emberiza cia), which are in many places and Plešivská Silická Plateau, south-oriented valley of Zádielska nests in varying amounts (15-20 pairs). Occurrences site ortolan CIA in the Slovak Karst consists of the northern border of European enlargement. Another pozoruhodnejšímdruhom skaliar this habitat is varied (Monticola saxatilis), which nests here especially to less accessible rock reliefs karst hillsides and plains. Nests are also several other protected bird species such as gray skaliarik (Oenanthe Oenanthe), wagtail (Motacilla alba), robin salmon (Erythacus rubecula), but also other types of scrub and forest. Významným druhom this steppe habitat to which it binds more or less only trophically, the saker falcon (Falco falcons), the area enlargement are typically partially overlaps with the other large species of falcon - peregrine falcon, but that it is more in the next habitat.
Another group of birds is forests, canyon valleys and large rock formations. This group is much more diverse and highly subject to influence avicenóz especially large mountain range - the Slovak Ore Mountains. Characterizing group there are some particularly rare species of raptors and owls, such as the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), which states in recent years been very critical and fears of its total eradication in the Slovak Karst are quite reasonable. How rare hniezdič there exists Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus), eagle (Aguila pomarina), dark kite (Milvus milgrana), ordinary honey (Pernis apivorus), deer buzzard (Buteo buteo), goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), occasionally eagle Royal (Aguila heliaca), golden eagle (Aguila chrysaetos) and more recently have been observed during the breeding period and very rare specimens of a small eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). The owls are particularly rare eagle owl (Bubo bubo), which nest on inaccessible cliffs or steep rocky hillsides. Rarely it occurs boreal owl (Aegolius funereus) and kuvičok owl (Glaucidium passerinum), which here can zalietať of the Slovak Ore Mountains. Of the rarer species, ravens are found black raven (Corvus corax), which nest on inaccessible cliffs, or even on trees, speckled Orešnica (Nucifraga caryocathactes), which seeks kroviskové formation with the occurrence of hazel. The woodpecker deserves the attention of the black woodpecker (Dryocopus Martius), the rarer kinds of food are binding on mountain streams are nesting Black Stork (Ciconia nigra), trasochvost Vrchovský (mountain) (Motacilla cinerea), common Aquarius (Cinclus cinclus) and our exotic krásny kingfisher (Alcedo atthis). In addition, there live many other protected species typical of different types of vegetation cover and hypsometric zones, which are not described for the specific area and are roughly the same as avicenózami surrounding mountain ranges.
The additional components of the avian component of the Slovak Karst is the cultural landscape of birds and aquatic habitats. Mention them here only for completeness. In particular synantropné protected bird species such as
Tengmalm common (Athene noctua), flames driemavá (Tyto alba), woodpecker hnedkavý (Dendrocopus syriacus) and below. The largest group consists of water and the water living species in the spring and autumn migration stop for water flows, but especially in lakes and Hrhov Turn. In transmigrantov here as hniezdič occurs Bee salmon (Oriolus Oriolus), very rare kúdeľníčka Pavilion (Remis pendulinus) and marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus). Throughout the year was seen osprey (Pandion haliaetus), a rare bird of prey, but its nesting can be very difficult to predict. As hniezdiče also lists the gray heron (Ardea cinerea) and purple heron (Ardea purpurea).
Animal component of the Protected Landscape Area Slovak Karst and the State Nature Reserve Zádielska gorge has an important place in the natural values of this area. Among the unique and unrepeatable value of Slovak nature, we must protect and can afford to be mutilated or destroyed.
Karst areas are interesting and attractive. The most important are especially caves, karren fields and narrow rocky valley. With these peculiarities related to karst different manifestations of life.
From the climatic point of view Zádielska Valley is one of its south edge of the dry and very warm Pannonian area, but in the north continues to wet and cool climate of the Slovak Ore Mountains.
Although the annual average rainfall is quite high and exceeds 600 mm, seen here felt the lack of moisture as it ages the porous limestone. It is noticeable difference between the spring season, rich in flowers, and summer when the vegetation due to lack of water as if burned. During this period shall apply prairie drought tolerant species of vegetation.
Zádielska valley has distinct richness of flora and vegetation. There is growing about 900 vascular plant species. This richness is conditioned by many circumstances. In addition to the said frontier lay the floristic diversity of the local flora makes the narrow valley. In them we see so clearly. reversal of vegetation zones. This is reflected by the narrow Tiesňavy at an altitude of 200-250 m growing a typical mountain plants such as alpine clematis (Clematis alpina), an Arab alpine (Arabis alpina), alpine aster (Asfer alpinus) Škarda Jacguiniova (Crepis jacguinii), deer tongue (Phyllitis scolopendrium) and others. About 300 to 400 m above are extremely thermophilic species such as Stipa Ivanov (SFIP Joannis) včelník Austria (Dracocephalum austriacum) sinokvet soft (Jurinea mollis), Siberian flowered bell (Campanula sibirica ssp. Divergentiformis) Lumnitzerov carnation (Dianthus lumnitzeri ) and others.
Many species of Pannonian thermophilous flora here reach their northern limit of distribution. The major species of thermophilic mention: hadomor purple and Austria (Scerzonera purpurea and S. austriaca), Astragalus mechúrikatý whitish (Astragallus vesicarius ssp. Albidus), pea Pannonian (Lafhyrus pannonicum) klasovec greyish (Asyneuma canescens), male Pannonian (Nepeta pannonica) , three-hibiscus (Hibiscus trionum) skrutec Europe (Meliotropium europaeum) zbehovec lupine (Ajuga chamaepitys), the roof is tartar maple (Acer tataricum) Flowering Ash (Fraxinus ornus) mechúrnik arborescent (Colutea arborescens), cherry mahalebková ( Cerasus mahaleb) and others.
The most precious jewel of a plant is firebug Turnian (Onosma tornensis) growing in the vicinity. Equally surprising to Zádielska plateau is a widespread outbreak of open Pulsatilla (Pulsatilla patens) coming from the Sarmatian steppes.
We can find the relics that survive from the Tertiary period. They are on inaccessible rock faces growing yew (Taxus baccafa) and massive specimens of English ivy (Hedera helix), bladdernut Peristil (Staphyllea pinnata) and others.
The ice age here remained soldanelka Carpathian (Soldanella carpatica) and kortúza Matthioli (Cortusa matthioli) that grows in the so-called. Ice hole under Zádielska raven rocks in the valley.
Border lay of the Slovak Karst is strongly reflected in the development of plant communities. Plant communities and their mosaic fragments quickly and smoothly turns overlap. Thus we find in a typical mountain community islet calcareous (Sesleria varia) with alpine aster (Aster alpinus), clove Lumnitzerovým (Dianthus lumnitzeri) and Skardu Jacguiniovou (Crepis jacguinii) strictly thermophilic and Pannonian steppe species, such as soft sinokvet (Jurinea mollis), hadomor Magenta (Scorzonera purpurea), reddish middle (Spiraea media) and below.
Equally typical of the karst is the rapid rotation of ecotypes. At a distance of barely a few inches of calcareous species growing next to a low-lime. Beside rich groups Pulsatilla (Pulsatilla sp.) Growing solid carpet female dog (Nardus stricta).
The other important and typical species in the Slovak Karst valley Zádielska richly represented as the first harbingers of spring - rich clusters of purple flowers flowered Pulsatilla (Pulsatilla grandis) and Pulsatilla Slovak (P. Slavica). As soon as they are reported in large groups žltosvietiace pheasant spring flowers (Adonis vernalis). Striking rocky slopes give golden yellow carpet nátržníka sandbar (Potentilla arenaria). They were then comes to a small iris. leafless (Iris pumila and I. aphylla). Early summer is a wonderful view of the silvery rippling rich vegetation Ivanovo Stipa (Stipa Joannis) or the whole area Karren, which are purple from Siberian bell (Campanula sibirica). The vertical walls
rocky cliffs adorned with numerous tufts lived hadomoru Austrian (Scorzonera austriaca), a beautiful purple starfish alpine aster (Aster alpinus), not turn a large group of Taric rock (Alyssum saxatile). Her sister, Taric Mountain (Alyssum montanum), along with daisies drsnoplodou (Draba lasiocarpa) grows on Karren. In the crevices of rocks found slezinník rutovitý (Asplenium ruta-muraria) slezinník red (A.trichomanes), and sometimes slezinník green (A. viridis).
In the middle of summer, when most plants have fade away, illuminated by white rocks fringe jagavky konáristej (Anthericum ramosum) with cornflower depicted dokvitajúcou Triumfettovou (triumfetti cyanus). Even the colorful autumn, when the walls of white limestone strongly reflect all shades of color playing the imposing plant for winter recreation.
The Slovak Karst are ideally positioned for both tourism and for recreation and sports a different nature.
Trail route is closed circuit, so it can pass in both directions. The best is to follow the numbering of the stops. The height difference between Zádielska plain and the lowest point of the route (about 300 m) in this direction more easily overcome.
Nature Trail begins at the village Zádielska Dvorníky - part of the rear and north along the road through the canyon Zádielska Blatnický against the flow stream. After a rocky gorge at the outlet of the left-hand turn into the path Borka turn right through a wooden bench above the creek Blatnický. Continue along the forest road to the edge of the plateau. The trip can turn right on view point. Trail route continues southwards to the valley with pastures Zádielska groups arborescent vegetation to the top edge of the plateau. Nature trail then turns east, there has been considering a group of trees at the southern edge of the plateau, leading to the southeast, falling through a typical Drieňová stand up to the starting point.
Nature trail can go for four hours demanding tourists may descend on the pavement, but can continue in an easterly direction towards the edge Zádielska plains and along the ridge to descend to the ruins of the castle Turniansky.
In bad weather visitors can go to the cottage Torrent (Unity Košice), cottage, open during the summer season, is located in a valley about 300 m from station no. 4th
The direction of the trail on the ground and the signs of stopping cross marked green stripe in white squares.